Aug 2521 mins read

20 years of domestic operating system: advanced offensive and defensive, fighting more than fighting

Image 71851

"As long as there is hope, we can't give up!"

Text / Chinese Business Tao Zhang Lingyun

In May 1999, the Chinese Embassy in Yugoslavia was blown, and Sino -US relations fell into the freezing point. To this end, the relevant leaders of the Ministry of Information Industry and the Ministry of Science and Technology have repeatedly discussed the emergency meeting:

What kind of threat will the national information security will face once you make trouble with the United States?

At that time, Microsoft's Windows operating system was widely used in government departments' computers. If the Mingmen is in the hands of outsiders, the national information security will no longer exist!

The national information security defense war is imminent, and a large number of Chinese IT people have begun to go to the long journey for 20 years.

Highlight opening

The first big banner of the first big banner of the Chinese independent operating system was the first big banner of the Chinese independent operating system.

At that time, Ni Guangnan, an academician of the Chinese Academy of Engineering, had left Lenovo for four years. In the past four years, he has always wanted to build a Chinese independent IT core industry. He told student Liang Ning that we need to use the self -developed Ark CPU+Linux operating system to replace the core framework of Microsoft and Intel Alliance. [1]

No longer playing games designed by others, to create their own game rules, this is the ultimate dream of Chinese IT people. Liang Ning listened, holding his fist tightly, and his nails were pushed into the meat.

In the Software Institute of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, it is also full of excitement.

Sun Yufang, then deputy director of the Institute of Software of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, told his colleague Hu Caiyong and Wu Jian: "We are software, we must make a difference in the operating system!" [1]

After the embassy incident, it was Sun Yufang's book on the State Council, asking for establishing his own information security system."China cannot have its own operating system."

Linux was the only open source system software that could compete with Microsoft Windows in the world. To this end, on July 15, 1999, the Ministry of Information Industry organized a senior seminar on "Linux Future Development" for the first time to reach a consensus to increase its efforts to comprehensively promote the popularization and application of Linux in China.

For a while, the linux boom surged. From 1999 to 2000, large and small Linux development companies appeared in the country market, with 30 or 40 at the peak. The surfing platform was the fastest. As early as March and April 1999, the first domestic operating system XTEAMLINUX 1.0 was launched.

In 2000, under the leadership of Sun Yufang, Zhongke Hongqi was established and developed the red flag Linux.

Image 71852

Compared with the private surfing platform, the Chinese Academy of Sciences' Software of the Chinese Academy of Sciences is the mission of "the rise of China's independent operating system".

Sun Yufang was the most influential UNIX technology and Chinese information processing expert in China at that time. Before the birth of Hongqi Linux, he was responsible for developing another domestic operating system COSIX, knowing that the symptoms of the domestic operating system were not technology, but in the application of ecology.

To this end, Sun Yufang also founded the Red Flag Chinese 2000 and launched the domestic office software Red Office.

It can be seen from the two major products of the layout operation system and office software that Hongqi wants to be Microsoft in China.

Hongqi not only dug up the backbone employees of Microsoft and Oracle, but also defeated Microsoft to win the order in the Beijing government's procurement in 2001, and became famous in the World War I.

Bill Gates, who was far away in the United States, was shocked after hearing it. Microsoft urgently submitted a report of 35,000 words to Beijing and relevant parties in the name of Chinese subsidiaries, and asked 60 questions, which was called "Microsoft 60 boards" by the media.

Microsoft Senior Vice President Creeig Monde made a special trip to the Ministry of Science and Technology of China and the relevant leaders of the Beijing Municipal Government to restore the situation.

At the meeting meeting of the Ministry of Science and Technology, Mondi took out a 42 -page "China Future Software and its related policy issues" report to explain the disadvantages of Linux, and finally proposed that Microsoft can share the original code.

Yuan Meng, the participating scientist, stood up and asked: "Since Microsoft respects the open original code plan, you are open to the original code in 12 countries around the world. Why not open to China before?" [2]

Yuan Meng is a well -known open source expert. He is the chief engineer of Hongqi Linux and has always been known for his dare to speak.

"Your so -called open -minded original code to China is just to let some engineers go to the Microsoft headquarters to look at the original code like internal files, and record the time when everyone reads the original code. This does not conform to the spirit of the open original code. How can this be called open? "[2]

Mondi finally returned without success, and Gao Qunyao, the president of Microsoft, resigned.

In 2001, the domestic operation system was shining.

The first surfing platform to make a product created another first. In November of that year, it successfully landed in Hong Kong GEM, becoming the first domestic LINUX company to be listed.

The domestic boss Zhongke Hongqi not only kicked Microsoft out of the government bidding, but also began to enter the corporate market. The OEM protocol with PC hardware manufacturers exceeded 1 million units, which once won the honor of the world's third largest Linux operating system manufacturer.

In addition, Hongqi Linux has set up more than 100 training centers across the country. As of October 2003, more than 1,000 red flag -certified Linux engineers were trained.

"Most of them do something for the country." This is the simple belief of scientists such as Sun Yufang and Ni Guangnan. It is adhering to this belief that Chinese IT people have achieved zero breakthroughs in the domestic operating system.

The opening of the highlight, however, the next path of the domestic operation system was extremely difficult.

Red flag

"We got the Prime Minister and did not get the user experience." Liang Ning said.

Although Sun Yufang grasped the operating system and the office software in one hand in a prestigious name, the document format of the Red Office and Yongzhong -based OFFICE and Microsoft has always been compatible. This inconvenience is unacceptable to consumers.

At that time, pirated Microsoft software was popular, and Hongqi Linux rarely asked, and was very difficult to get in the C -end market. Sun Yufang was also facing the pressure of the board of directors. The board of directors requires returns within three years. However, the background of Zhongke Red Flag was special. At that time, financing and listing were restricted.

In the three years of 2001-2003, Zhongke Hongqi failed to achieve profitability. Under the pressure, Sun Yufang accumulated a disease. On January 14, 2005, he died of ineffective treatment due to diabetes and complications at the age of 57.

What is sighing is that, on the eve of his popularity, Zhongke Red Flag ushered in the first "Million" profit record in 2004.

After losing Sun Yafang, the contradiction between the shareholders of the Hongqi Hongqi of Zhongke has become increasing.

A early person who served as a senior manager of the Chinese Science and Technology Red Flag had revealed to the media that the management method of "the company's enterprise is not distinguished" by the actual control party of the largest shareholder of the Soft Innovation of the Soft Innovation of the Soft Innovation of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, which made several small shareholders extremely dissatisfied. And these eight shareholders have a vote veto, and no one can accept anyone. [3]

Internal crickets are constantly in the middle, and Zhongke Hongqi has rarely made greatness.

In October 2008, Microsoft made a "black screen" warning prompt on pirated Windows and Office users. For the first time, the Chinese felt the crisis of "broken food".

The state is determined to accelerate the development of the domestic operating system. In November of the same year, the Ministry of Science and Technology officially announced the notice of the 2009 topic declaration of "nuclear high -base" science and technology.

"Nuclear high base" is one of the 16 major scientific and technological projects tied with manned aerospace and lunar exploration projects. It is expected to invest over 100 billion yuan. This is alsoFor the first time, the country has made huge funding organizations to carry out major basic software.

As a leading enterprise in the domestic operating system, Zhongke Hongqi naturally has a lot of responsibility and must declare participation in the "nuclear high -based" project.

However, in addition to national and local funding, "nuclear high -base" scientific research funds also need to be raised by some enterprises. The budget is about 60 million yuan. At the time, the revenue of Zhongke Hongqi was about 20 million yuan, which was unable to bear it.

People familiar with the matter revealed that the Chinese Academy of Sciences Software promised that the Chinese Science and Technology Red Flag would not be in place if the self -raised funds could not be in place. But this commitment laid a foreshadowing for the Crisis of the Hongki Hongqi in the future.

In order to complete the "nuclear high -base" task, in order to set up a self -raising fee of 60 million yuan, Zhongke Red Flag took out the entire family.

Former employees revealed: "Within 3 years, the company's sales revenue, executive personal real estate mortgage loans, and employees' salary have raised funds to fill the vacancy of R & D funds of 60 million yuan.The company's normal business operations have stagnated.」[3]

In desperation, Zhongke Hongqi announced in February 2014 that it was officially dissolved. All employee labor contracts terminated, and the company entered the liquidation procedure.

In mid -July 2014, after 10 rounds of competition, Dalian Wujia Wanjing Group successfully took over Zhongke Hongqi at a price of 38.62 million yuan.

Sun Kaige, chairman of Wujia Wanjing, said: "China's Red Flag is the banner of China's computer operating system. The red flag cannot be poured. Our flag is pushed down, and it will be confident in the entire industry. Therefore, I decided to hesitate to all cost at all costs. Take the red flag. "

The Red Flag did not fall, but gradually faded out of people's attention, investing more into 2B and government projects.


When China ’s Hongqi fought hard for the“ nuclear high base ”, the days of other domestic operating systems were not good.

In 2006, netizen Dancefire claimed in a technical analysis article that the Galaxy Kirin (Kylin) and the United States opened the original code FreeBSD operating system 5.3 similarity of more than 90%, suspected of plagiarism.

As soon as the news came out, public opinion was uproar. This is the first time that the domestic operating system has suffered such a large -scale criticism.

Galaxy Kirin is also not small. It was developed by the University of Defense Technology in 2002. It not only has the military background, but also the results of the 863 plan's major research results. Essence

The foundation of the domestic operating system is independent innovation,If the news is true, all the efforts made by the domestic operating system will be put into Dongliu, and it will also become a handle for foreign attacks.

However, strictly speaking, Galaxy Kirin is not plagiarism.

FreeBSD is completely free and open source, allowing others to modify and use its original code, but must be declared "Modify from FreeBSD." Both Google and Apple have modified FreeBSD.

Generally, the system kernel is rarely modified based on BSD or Linux. Galaxy Kirin or due to military needs, it has higher requirements for security and controlling. Extra nuclear tool environment is based on linux development. The system service layer of the kernel has been improved and optimized based on FreeBSD, adding kernel security modules.

Professionals said that compared with the general domestic operating system, the degree of autonomy of Galaxy Kirin is relatively high. "If you can go along this road, continue to increase your code ratio, replace the original code of foreign countries, develop yourself to develop yourself The kernel module is not a good way. " [4]

However, Galaxy Kirin's wrong claims that its kernel has independent smart property rights. In the face of facts, Galaxy Kirin can only admit the use of FreeBSD code, not "completely independent development."

As soon as the news came out, no one cared about the efforts made by the scientific researchers behind. The public only remembered that the Galaxy Kirin made the domestic operation system's reputation.

In desperation, the National Defense University of Defense gradually abandoned the Galactic Kirin of the BSD kernel version and turned to the mainstream of the Linux kernel.

A new road that is expected to get out of the domestic operating system is broken.

Image 71853

In 2010, the LINUX operating system of the LINUX operating system under the bidding of private enterprises with private enterprises was formally merged, and the two sides subsequently unified the new brand of "winning Kirin".

The "Galaxy Kirin" trademarks and smart property rights related intangible assets were authorized to Tianjin Kirin Information Technology Co., Ltd. by the National Defense University of Science and Technology.

After the consolidation of Kirin, the bidding Kirin ranked first in the China Linux operating system market for eight consecutive years, but the main customers are still military and political agencies and enterprises, and the C -end market is still micro.

Deep breakout

Yahoo founder Yang Zhiyuan once said: "You will never want to compete with Microsoft. If they want to compete with you, you have to run away and do something else."

But in China, a group of people did not run away, but challenged Microsoft.

This group of people is not like Sun Yufang, Ni Guangnan and others holding government scientific research resources. They can only rely on themselves in the market to kill me and kill a blood path.

Liu Wenhuan is one of them.

In 1999, Liu Wenhuan graduated from the computer accounting of the Digital College of Hubei University. He tried to make a Linux distribution version with his friends, and he had the idea of the research and development operation system. It was not until 9 years later that this idea was officially put into action.

Image 71854

In 2008, he co -launched the Deepin project with a batch of Linux developers Hiweed, Wang Yong and others.

At the beginning, this was just a community -based public welfare project, and team members were basically part -time development. For six consecutive years, R & D funds are relying on Liu Wenhuan's personal pocket. For a long time, the company has only invested and income, so that the tax authorities have suspected it for a while to check for money laundering. [5]

Why do you do if you do n’t make money?

"I insisted on doing this because of ideals and hobbies." Liu Wenhuan said that developing Chinese's own Linux is the dream of the team.

In depth, simply modifying the foreign operating system as a domestic production is not the technical level that China should have. They want to prove the world,"As long as the Chinese people do it seriously, the Chinese team will definitely achieve the best open source technology and products in the world."

To this end, the deep R & D team has paid too much. Deep co -founder Wang Yong has disclosed some difficult moments online:

Writing code is too tired to rely on the infusion to continue to work the next day; long -term sleep in the company, only his wife holds the child downstairs to force him to go home; drink with the customer, vomit countless times and still be stuffy; even I can't continue my life until I collapse ...

Wang Yong was the first full -time developer in depth. He was born in 1988 and did not go to college. He loved self -study programming with a tone. Even in a noisy migrant workshop, he insisted on writing code. Get the purest happiness yourself. "

Zhongke Hongqi and Galaxy Kirin have a strong government background and strong R & D funds, and have not yet achieved real success in the market. In depth, as a self -reliant private enterprise, the difficulties and pressures are imagined.

Despite being so difficult, the depth is still on the banner of the domestic operating system.

Since the first version was released in 2009, Deepin has gradually accumulated reputation with the characteristics of ease of use and beauty, and has a certain popularity internationally.

In 2011, there were hundreds of thousands of users worldwide; 100 in the global distribution list were entered; in 2013, the top 50 of the global distribution list was advanced.

In 2014, Deepin entered the top 20 of the global distribution list, 20,Finally, commercial operations began, and they received Green League Technology and 80 million yuan of investment. There have been foreign giants who want to invest or acquire depth and have been rejected.

In addition, Liu Wenhuan said that he had never obtained any government projects or project funds in the depth, but he successfully entered the procurement list of the central government with his strength. The remaining three companies that were in the same period had a state -owned background.

Deepin is also the first Chinese operating system that is transplanted by a foreign government, and is known as the "China's best Linux operating system."

Mobile defeat

In 2007, Google released the Android system (Android). No one realized that on the mobile phone, an opponent as terrible as Microsoft was quietly rising.

In the same year, 43 -year -old Chen Xiyuan gave up the position of the senior vice president and CTO of UT Standa in the United States, and chose to return to China to start a business.

He caught up with good times.

At that time, in order to introduce high -level overseas talents, the state not only launched the "Thousand Talents Plan" with the highest political level, but also tilted small companies in policies and resources to start a business.

Under the government's matchmaking bridge, Chen Xiyuan just set up a broadcast communication for a long time, and followed China to do big things.

2008 was the eve of the 3G era.On December 12, the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology first clarified the method of distribution of 3G licenses. The three major operators are stepping up the transformation and layout.

In order to continue to maintain the advantages of the 2G era, China Mobile announced the launch of OMS of the first domestic mobile phone operating system. The customized mobile phone equipped with OMS was named "Ophone", which intended to occupy the entrance to the mobile Internet.

The "behind -the -scenes hero" broadcast communication providing technical support became famous.

Image 71855

In order to promote Ophone, China Mobile laid the "blood". The then president Wang Jianzhou said that he had prepared a subsidy of 6 billion yuan and vowed to make Ophones as thousands of yuan to become the leader of the 3G era mobile phone market.

This ambition was derived from the stage where the mobile phone operating system was still in the routine -Nokia Saipan at the beginning of the moment, and the market share of Android accounted for only 5%.

Everything is possible, and China has a chance.

Unfortunately, China Mobile grabbed the opportunity, but failed to grasp.

The media revealed that OMS is not an independent operating system, but a Android Chinese version made by Broadcasting Communication to cater to the progress of China Mobile.

As Android continues to upgrade, OMS update speed cannot keep up. The user began to talk about, and Ophone's cooperative mobile phone manufacturers also fell into the Android camp.

Seeing that the general trend had gone, I had to give up OMS.

Also defeated is the Wo Phone of the mobile phone operating system launched by Zhonglian in 2010.

Compared to iPhone,Wo Phone is the first independent domestic mobile phone operating system in the real sense.Based on the Linux kernel, it has completely independent smart property rights.

However, because the Android system has successfully occupied most of the market at this time, the weak PHONE has no power to compete.

In 2013, Tongzhou Electronics acquired the Wo PHONE R & D team for 29.8331 million yuan, and the next year was born out of the Tongzhou 960 mobile operating system.

The two major operators have the opportunity to rewrite the fate of the domestic mobile phone operating system, but history is no longer assumed.

The real history was that the domestic operating system became a joke at the time.

Behind this is full of endless regrets of Chinese IT people. We have a 15 -year difference in Windows, but we stood on the same running line as Android, but failed to seize the opportunity.

Despite the loss of the initiative of the mobile battlefield, the Chinese IT people did not stun the flags, and the battle continued.

Fight more than

In 2011, Alibaba launched the Linux -based mobile phone operating system, Yunos.

When the then Alibaba CTO and Alibaba Cloud President Wang Jian first proposed to Ma Yun to do the research and development of yunos, Ma Yun said:"I was almost angry at his courage."

At that time, there was no Internet company to touch the operating system. Whether it is a business or technical consideration, this is a laborious thing.

Sure enough, before the release of Yunos, he encountered Google's sniper.

Google defines Yunos as "non -compatible Android systems" and requires the opening of members of the mobile phone alliance to prohibit Yunos. For yunos without hardware and only software, it is equivalent to directly blocking.

Fortunately, Ali held the pressure on the pressure.

In December 2015, based on mobile phone shipments, the installation volume of Yunos exceeded WP, becoming the third largest mobile OS in the world. Now it has been updated to the sixth generation, with more than 200 million equipment worldwide.

In September 2017, the Yunos brand was upgraded to AliOS, and no longer followed the pace of others and began to explore the new path of the network of car networking. In 2018, ALIOS had a vehicle volume of 700,000, which exceeded Tesla at the time.

Image 71856

Wang Jian said in the book "Online": "I have been made a lot of criticism, even more than I have scolded in my life, but I don't regret it."

Academician Ni Guangnan, 80, has always insisted.

Knowing that his dream is being used, knowing that someone will continue to ridicule the joke, he still chooses to burn his life, constantly try and work, and call for the future of the domestic operating system.

Ni Guangnan said: "The wheels have turned around, and step by step to solve the problem, staying in place will only fall into a dead cycle."

Huawei, who is working silently, is also insisting.

In 2012, Huawei created its own mobile phone operating system team in Helsinki, Finland, and slowly accumulated and expanded from 20 engineers.

In 2019, Huawei was restricted to use Android rights by Google. Fortunately, Ren Zhengfei was far -sighted, and the weapon that polished seven years ago was finally out of the sheath.

On May 21, Yu Chengdong, CEO of Huawei Consumer Business, revealed that Huawei's operating system "Hongmeng", designed by the next generation of technology, will be the earliest this autumn. The operation system has opened up mobile phones, computers, tablets, televisions, cars, and intelligent wearables to uniformly become an operating system.

Today, Huawei's mobile phone shipments have exceeded Apple, ranking second in the world, and finally a domestic system is no longer a rootless flower.

As early as 2003, some people suggested that Sun Yufang, who was above the sick couch, wrote an article "What will the Chinese software industry fall after the red flag falls down?"

Sun Yufang said with a smile: "Before writing this article, Linux has no fall in China, and there is hope;As long as there is hope, we cannot give up!」[1]

Reference materials:

[1] "The ups and downs of China's open source software: Missing my teacher Sun Yufang" Hu Caiyong

[2] "The government's genuine procurement of Microsoft is out, and Microsoft's high -level mediation returns without merit." Jinghua Times Pi Jun and Hou Lei

[3] "Zhongke Red Banner's Fairness: Excessive reliance on government procurement, shareholders' internal fighting" Finance and Economics Weekly

[4] Why is the Kirin system be criticized? 》 Lei

[5] "Interview with the General Manager of In -depth Technology Company Liu Wenhuan: Observer Network Born due to the ideal of the ideal"


The pictures come from the network

Welcome to pay attention to [Huashang Tao strategies], know the characters of the wind, and read the legend of Tao Tao.

Copyright, prohibit private reprint!